Recording alters tonality by a full tone

Hi there,
I just noticed that my recording alters tonality by a full tone, so playing in the key of E does record in D - full tone lower.
I was trying to find the issue based on the recording speed but found nothing to adjust/modify into settings…
I assume this is a very simple trouble and you could help me with just a single-sentence advice.
Thank you!

Try adjusting the sample-rates of the Audacity-project & recording-device so they are the same
e.g. increase the Audacity project rate from the default of 44100Hz to 48000Hz before recording again.

Trebor, thank you!
Yes, I do record with 44100 Hz sample-rate, and I will follow your advice… will let you know after!!

Another thing that can cause this is when you record and playback on different hardware, such as recording with a USB microphone or a USB interface, and then playing-back on your regular soundcard.

Every device has its own clock (oscillator), no clock is perfect and some are off by enough to cause problems for musicians, The clock also affects speed-tempo.

Doug, thanks for your feedback!
This is the case, I do use a combination of interface and laptop… do you mean, this can not be fixed ??
I could not try to experiment with sample-rate yet - reinstalling windows right now…

This is the case, I do use a combination of interface and laptop… do you mean, this can not be fixed ??

Use the interface for both recording and playback. I assume you have a decent interface so it’s probably the “cheap soundcard” built into your laptop and just the playback that’s off.

IF this is the problem your recording from the interface is OK… It’s OK unless you are singing to an off-key playback track from your soundcard. If you are singing/playing out-of-tune to match the playback, that’s a bigger problem… It’s a “trap” because you’re singing off-pitch and when you play that back it gets pitch-shifted again in the same direction and it still doesn’t match the original backing track!

If it’s the recording you can fix it with the change speed effect (which changes speed & pitch together) but it’s hard to guess the correct correction factor.

Sample rate mismatches can happen but it’s rare. Usually the software & drivers automatically take care of everything, including any conversions. Sample rate problems are most common with digital S/PDIF connections because that interface only sends audio data and otherwise it doesn’t “communicate” with the software.

…You can get a similar problem with recording [u]dropouts[/u] (missing data). With missing data you get a shorter file that plays-back faster. But usually you’ll notice clicks and you usually don’t hear a pitch-shift.

I do use M-audio 192/8 interface (was purchased due its very low noise-figure which is true!) with new Envy laptop by HP … and my DIY microphone built with original vintage CK-12 capsule by AKG, I do have other Chinese 103 Neumann mics which do work well too.
Just installed latest Audacity, it has Pitch and Tempo in the effects, hope these speed and tempo do change the tonality as it does with analogue recorders…

If you’re recording at 192kHz, you should set the audacity project rate to match : 192000Hz.