I’m not an expert on macOS, but that looks to me like a CoreAudio crash, which would implicate your computer’s audio device drivers.
Audacity queries all audio devices on the system (not just the ones that you use), so if any device has a bad driver a crash could be triggered when Audacity launches. (The reason why Audacity queries all devices is so that you can choose which devices to use for play / record without having to restart Audacity).
I’d suggest that you take a look in the “Audio MIDI Setup” app and see if anything looks unusual there. You could try disabling any devices that you don’t use.