How should I do

Hello friends. I m Andrei from Romania looking for some advice. I have used Audacity to records hundreds of LP’s . Those days I have decided to “improve” the sound of my records to get closer to nowadays YouTube original hi quality records so I want to use a chain with equalizer . I made some test and found out that a +8dB increase for 100hz and 10khz will satisfy me. I am working with the wav files of my recordings. I also want to use click repair software which also seems to do a good job for me. I want to ask in which order to use the chain with the equalizer and the click repair software and how can I “amplify” the mp3 files that I will make from the wav files(for my friends) ?
Thank you in advance !

I want to ask in which order to use the chain with the equalizer and the click repair software

It’s usually best to run Click Repair first, before any other processing.

and how can I “amplify” the mp3 files that I will make from the wav files(for my friends) ?

Short answer - Run the Normalize effect, or run the Amplify effect and use the default amplification. Either of these will adjust the volume for maximized 0dB peaks.

0dBFS is the maximum for “normal” WAV files and for your DAC (digital-to-analog converter). If you try to go louder you will get [u]clipping[/u] (distorted flat-topped waves).

If you boost anything with the equalizer (especially the bass) you may have to reduce the overall loudness to keep the peaks below 0dB.

Note that Audacity uses floating-point internally so Audacity itself won’t clip. For example, you can boost the bass and as long as you normalize to bring-down the levels before exporting, you’ll be OK. You also you might not hear the clipping if you have the volume down and you’re not clipping your DAC.

how can I “amplify” the mp3 files

As you probably know, MP3 is lossy compression and Audacity (or any normal audio editor) has to decompress the file before editing. If you open an MP3 for editing and then re-export as MP3, you are going through another generation of lossy compression. So if you want to make MP3s, compress to MP3 once as the last step.

Longer answer - Perceived loudness is complicated. It’s related to the short-term average level and the frequency content. If you normalize/maximize all of your songs, some songs will be louder than others. It’s very common to have quiet-sounding songs with maximized peaks.

Dynamic compression can be used to boost the overall-average volume without boosting/clipping the peaks. But, that does change the “character” of the sound… If everything is the same volume the music can become boring (IMO). (Don’t confuse this with file compression, such as MP3.)

You can apply dynamic compression with the Compressor effect, or with the Limiter set to “hard limit”. In both cases, use make-up gain to bring-up the loudness. And in both cases, you’ll have to experiment. The hard limiter is easier to experiment with because there are fewer settings-options.

Most modern music is highly compressed for “maximum loudness”. See [u]The Loudness War[/u]. Some people prefer the dynamics on an older LP over a modern “re-mastered” CD.

A couple more tricky things… The process of recording and playing-back an LP introduces phase shifts. This boosts some peaks and reduces other peaks (with affecting the sound of the dynamics). Since some peaks are higher (without increasing loudness) a 0dB normalized digitized LP will have a lower average level than 0dB maximized CD of the same recording, so the digitized LP won’t be as loud as the CD or MP3.

MP3 compression does something similar, boosting some peaks and reducing others. If you normalize to 0dB and then make an MP3, the MP3 will often peak at +1dB or so (again without sounding louder). The MP3 won’t be clipped but the DAC may clip during playback if you play at full-volume. It’s up to you if you want to normalize at a lower level to make headroom for the MP3 peaks, or if you want to go for maximum loudness.

and how can I “amplify” the mp3 files that I will make from the wav files(for my friends) ?

One more thought…

If you are going to use WAV files - They are lossless and it’s a “play anywhere” format. But, tags (artist/title/album, etc.) are not well supported and some players won’t show the information.

FLAC is lossless compression (same quality as WAV) and tags are more widely supported, and the files are almost half the size. The downside is that not all players support FLAC. (Apple devices support ALAC which is similar to FLAC.)

Hello. Thank you all for help. Have a nice day !