better quality LP recordings

what piece of hardware on a turntable most determines the recording quality of an LP??
i know that sounds stupid but chu know what i mean. if i have a crappy turntable but a really good
headshell/needle/cartridge whatever would it make a difference?

A poor quality turntable will have more speed variation and will rumble more than a high quality turntable. A poor quality cartridge and stylus will not translate the groove vibrations as accurately as a good one. The quality of turntable, arm, cartridge, stylus, pre-amp, power amp and speakers all contribute to the quality of the sound.

It’s a balancing act.

The turntable itself contributes rumble, flutter, wow and other speed variations and noise. The arm’s job is to hold the cartridge in exactly the right place with the right pressure. Too high and the record becomes damaged, to low the the needle will not follow the sound in the groove. The arm has that bend in it, right? There is a value called Overhang where the arm will miss the middle of the turntable if you move it far enough. That’s a very magic distance and it’s critical.

The cartridge’s job is to turn the vibrations of the needle into electrical signals and push them down to the Phono Preamp. The needle’s job is to follow the groove and the vibrations and not wear out.

The latest crop of USB turntables is designed to be thrown away when you’re done. They have problems with everything.